With the rise of Islam in the seventh century A. Over time the Arab identity lost its purely ethnic roots as millions in the Middle East and North Africa adopted the Arabic language and integrated Arab culture with that of their own. It embraces numerous national and regional groups as well as many non-Muslim religious minorities. Arab Christians, particularly in the countries of Egypt and the Fertile Crescent Syria, Iraq, Palestine, and Jordan constitute roughly ten percent of the population.
Adult education Students completing high school may choose to attend a college or university, which offer undergraduate degrees such as Associate's degrees or Bachelor's degrees baccalaureate.
Community college or junior college typically offer two-year associate degrees, although some community colleges offer a limited number of bachelor's degrees. Some community college students choose to transfer to a four-year institution to pursue a bachelor's degree.
Community colleges are generally publicly funded usually by local cities or counties and offer career certifications and part-time programs.
Four-year institutions may be public or private colleges or universities. Some counties and cities have established and funded four-year institutions. Some of these institutions, such as the City University of New Yorkare still operated by local governments.
Others such as the University of Louisville and Wichita State University are now operated as state universities. Private institutions are privately funded and there is a wide variety in size, focus, and operation.
Some private institutions are large research universities, while others are small liberal arts colleges that concentrate on undergraduate education. Some private universities are nonsectarian and secularwhile others are religiously-affiliated.
While most private institutions are non-profit, a growing number in the past decade have been established as for-profit. Curriculum varies widely depending on the institution. Typically, an undergraduate student will be able to select an academic "major" or concentrationwhich comprises the main or special subjects, and students may change their major one or more times.
Some students, typically those with a bachelor's degree, may choose to continue on to graduate or professional schoolsometimes attached to a university. Graduate degrees may be either master's degrees e.
Programs range from full-time, evening and executive which allows for flexibility with students' schedules. These include medicallawbusinesseducationdivinityartjournalismsocial workarchitectureand engineering schools. Variations[ edit ] In K—12 education, sometimes students who receive failing grades are held back a year and repeat coursework in the hope of earning satisfactory scores on the second try.
High school graduates sometimes take a gap year before the first year of college, for travel, work, public service, or independent learning. Many undergraduate college programs now commonly are five year programs. This is especially common in technical fields, such as engineering.
The five-year period often includes one or more periods of internship with an employer in the chosen field. Many graduate students do not start professional schools immediately after finishing undergraduate studies, but work for a time while saving up money or deciding on a career direction.
K—12 education[ edit ] Schooling is compulsory for all children in the United States, but the age range for which school attendance is required varies from state to state.
Some states allow students to leave school between 14—17 with parental permission, before finishing high school; other states require students to stay in school until age Most parents send their children to either a public or private institution.
According to government data, one-tenth of students are enrolled in private schools.
School districts are usually separate from other local jurisdictions, with independent officials and budgets. They taught a total of 55, students, who attended one ofschools.
In some cases, pupils may be promoted beyond the next regular grade. Parents may also choose to educate their own children at home ; 1. Around 60 percent of black dropouts end up spending time incarcerated. The Center for American Progress commends Florida and Texas as the only two states that provide annual school-level productivity evaluations which report to the public how well school funds are being spent at the local level.
This allows for comparison of school districts within a state. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development says that this is due to focusing on the low end of performers.
All of the recent gains have been made, deliberately, at the low end of the socioeconomic scale and among the lowest achievers. The country has been outrun, the study says, by other nations because the US has not done enough to encourage the highest achievers.
They spend 1, hours a year on their work, just below the national average of 1, hours for all workers.A Case for Acculturation. It’s time to update the way we think—and talk—about immigrant students.
The students were reluctantly attending a lunchtime meeting at Argyle Middle School in Silver Spring, Maryland, to discuss a new student club. a process often referred to as acculturation.
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In a rapidly changing world, literacy is an essential skill, one that helps people thrive individually, socially, and economically. Literacy is important for all aspects of an individual’s life, from handling personal affairs, to raising children, to engaging in the workforce, to participating in a democratic society.
The mind is not a vessel that needs filling but wood that needs igniting. Plutarch. Only the educated are free Epictetus. In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists. Enculturation is the process where the culture that is currently established teaches an individual the accepted norms and values of the culture or society in which the individual lives.
My life wasn’t truly my own until I came to reality in middle school. That’s when I started figuring out certain things weren’t as they seem just like.
Video: Acculturation Processes: Substitution, Syncretism, Addition, Deculturation & Origination This lesson will highlight processes of acculturation that create a .