Enumeration of bacterial contamination in hamburger

It has the advantage of not requiring previously prepared plates, and is often used to assay bacterial contamination of foodstuffs. One disadvantage of pour plates is that embedded colonies will be much smaller than those which happen to be on the surface, and must be carefully scored so that none are overlooked. Also, obligate aerobes may grow poorly if deeply imbedded in the agar. Write out details of preparing and plating your specimen s:

Enumeration of bacterial contamination in hamburger

Import into RefWorks 1. Background In ancient times, people didn't need money. They got everything they needed through bartering. In bartering, you trade something you don't need for something you do need. Thousands of years ago, Enumeration of bacterial contamination in hamburger first money was commodity money.

Commodities are things that everyone values enough to trade for and accept as payment. Commodity money varied from place to place, depending on what the local people valued.

Shells, salt and iron nail. But many forms of commodity money were difficult to carry and could lose their value. In due course, these were replaced by coins pieces of metal made of gold, silver, bronze and copper and much later paper money was developed the first time in China [ 12 ].

Money is the most widely used and sought after service on the planet. The transfer of paper currency has been the model of economic exchange since its introduction in China circa AD [ 3 ].

In the late s and early s, scientists began to theorize that the transmission of money was associated with the transmission of disease [ 4 ]. Modern scientific techniques have confirmed these theories and have shown that viable pathogenic organisms viruses, bacteria, and fungi can be isolated on the surfaces of both paper and coin currency [ 56 ].

Modern banknotes are made from a special blend of cotton, linen, other textile fiber and animal gelatin for the surface coating of banknotes with small segments of fiber.

Recently many countries have been replaced banknotes from paper to plastic polymers substrate [ 7 ].

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Although the primary purpose for the development of this plastic polymers substrate was to enhance security, it has been proven that this material provides other advantages i. Given these characteristics, polymer banknotes may be cleaner than paper currency [ 78 ].

This may be due to various physicochemical parameters of polymers [ 910 ]. Inanimate surfaces have often been described as the source for outbreaks of nosocomial infections. The most common nosocomial pathogens may well survive or persist on surfaces for months and can thereby be a continuous source of transmission if no regular preventive surface disinfection is performed[ 11 ].

Food Microbiology

The possibility that currency notes might act as environmental vehicles for the transmission of potential disease-carrying microorganisms was suggested in the s [ 12 ].

Paper notes of currency which is handled by a large number of people increase the possibility of acting as environmental vehicle for the transmission of potential pathogenic microorganisms [ 131415 ].

Research has shown that paper currency serves as an ideal breeding ground for microorganisms for several reasons. First, the paper bills offer a large surface area for organisms and organic debris to collect [ 16 ].

Lastly, banknotes weave their way through the population for many years before they come to rest.

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Studies indicate that the age and denomination of a bill have a direct correlation with the contamination observed e. An individual living in unhygienic conditions having unhygienic habits will contaminate the notes with bacteria e.

The money makes for easy transfer of bacterial and thus cross contamination [ 61819 ]. Physical transfer of material from hands, surfaces, and the environment can contaminate currency [ 620 ]. Individuals from almost every socio-economic background routinely hold and transfer paper currency.

Any object that can spread communicable diseases throughout a diverse population should be considered a risk to public health.

Therefore, currency has an important role in the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms and presents a moderate risk to public health. Contamination of different objects by potential pathogenic microorganisms is of public health importance as contaminated materials can be possible sources of transmission of such pathogens.


Bacteria have been shown to be spread from person to person via contact with fomites. Currency is commonly and routinely passed among individuals. Thus, bacteria could be spread on the surface of paper currency [ 21 ]. Money, therefore presents a particular risk to public health, since communicable diseases can spread through contact with fomites [ 5232425 ].

Several authors have raised the concern that banknotes and coins could serve as vectors for the transmission of disease-causing microorganisms [ 1226 ]. Microbial contaminants may be transmitted directly, through hand-to-hand contact, or indirectly, via food or other inanimate objects.

As a result, hand hygiene is considered critical for preventing food outbreaks and healthcare-associated infections [ 27 ]. However, only few data are available about the types of patient care activities that are able to transmit the patient flora to healthcare workers' hands.Most major producers of hamburger meat follow a similar process because using a combination of sources allows them to save money.

However, this increases the chance of contamination. These low-grade cuts of meat are more likely to have had contact with feces, which carries E. coli bacteria. Contamination by pathogenic microorganisms is one of the most important challenges faced by producers of processed meat products.

Enumeration of bacterial contamination in hamburger

The presence of foodborne pathogens in meat and meat products can result in a range of human health problems as well as economic losses to producers due to recalls from market places (1 Sofos monstermanfilm.comnges to meat safety in the 21st century.

The results showed the contamination of carcasses by all tested bacterial groups except monstermanfilm.com The level of microbial contamination increased progressively after the slaughtering of cattle to.

Introduction: Enumeration of bacteria in hamburger has become a popular scientific study based upon the bacterial growth in U.S. meat and its harmful effects after consumption.

A study found that out of three hamburger meat sources and 6 retailers there was a significant amount of multi-drug resistant bacteria and Escherichia coli (FSIS ).

ENUMERATION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA IN WATER FOR DIALYSIS: COMPARISON OF THE EFFICIENCY OF REASONER’2 AGAR AND PLATE COUNT AGAR the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in samples of water collected in dialysis clinics from 12 than PCA in the evaluation of bacterial contamination in water.

18 Bugno, A. et al. Enumeration of Bacterial Contamination in Hamburger Meat from Unknown Sources C March 6, The importance of bacterial enumeration has become even more apparent in recent years due to the increasing numbers of harmful bacteria found in meat products.

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