Is the amount of money spent on space research justifiable?
Support Aeon Donate now As I was growing up in England in the latter half of the 20th century, the concept of intelligence loomed large. It was aspired to, debated and — most important of all — measured. At the age of 11, tens of thousands of us all around the country were ushered into desk-lined halls to take an IQ test known as the Plus.
The results of those few short hours would determine who would go to grammar school, to be prepared for university and the professions; who was destined for technical school and thence skilled work; and who would head to secondary modern school, to be drilled in the basics then sent out to a life of low-status manual labour.
The idea that intelligence could be quantified, like blood pressure or shoe size, was barely a century old when I took the test that would decide my place in the world. To say that someone is or is not intelligent has never been merely a comment on their mental faculties.
It is always also a judgment on what they are permitted to do. Intelligence, in other words, is political.
Sometimes, this sort of ranking is sensible: But it has a dark side. As well as determining what a person can do, their intelligence — or putative lack of it — has been used to decide what others can do to them.
Throughout Western history, those deemed less intelligent have, as a consequence of that judgment, been colonised, enslaved, sterilised and murdered and indeed eaten, if we include non-human animals in our reckoning. But the problem has taken an interesting 21st-century twist with the rise of Artificial Intelligence AI.
In recent years, the progress being made in AI research has picked up significantly, and many experts believe that these breakthroughs will soon lead to more. Pundits are by turn terrified and excited, sprinkling their Twitter feeds with Terminator references.
To understand why we care and what we fear, we must understand intelligence as a political concept — and, in particular, its long history as a rationale for domination. Nor does it have a direct translation into German or ancient Greek, two of the other great languages in the Western philosophical tradition.
Indeed, they were obsessed with it, or more precisely a part of it: Although today many scholars advocate a much broader understanding of intelligence, reason remains a core part of it. So when I talk about the role that intelligence has played historically, I mean to include this forebear. The story of intelligence begins with Plato.
In all his writings, he ascribes a very high value to thinking, declaring through the mouth of Socrates that the unexamined life is not worth living.
Plato emerged from a world steeped in myth and mysticism to claim something new: And so he launched the idea that the cleverest should rule over the rest — an intellectual meritocracy.
This idea was revolutionary at the time.What is The Space Review?
The Space Review is an online publication devoted to in-depth articles, commentary, and reviews regarding all aspects of space exploration: science, technology, policy, business, and more.
The Sex Pistols lyrics tore around my teenage head like a steam train ripping up the rural landscape of my Dorset childhood, smashing through the soft easy vistas of fields and forests and laying down the concrete and graffiti of an urban landscape, I had yet to contemplate.
“Space exploration is a waste of money” based on this statement, I say, FALSE. it is NOT a waste of money, i see the long term value, and importance of space travel. I do, also, generally understand and appreciate the need for effective, and concise goals. Sample IELTS essay space exploration.
In this lesson you will find. a sample IELTS essay on space exploration; a vocabulary exercise on academic word list; then you MUST look at arguments for and against.
If you are asked only for your opinion, then you have the choice about whether to look at both sides of the question or not. INTRODUCTION.
The special subject of the greater part of the letters and essays of Schiller contained in this volume is Aesthetics; and before passing to any remarks on his treatment of the subject it will be useful to offer a few observations on the nature of this topic, and on its treatment by the philosophical spirit of different ages.
An online digest of new poems and new writing about poetry, poetics, ideas, language, essays, literature, criticism, analysis, arts, letters, philosophy, culture, art.