Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time.
What do we mean by social inequality? How can we conceive of and talk about social inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? People are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.
So, what counts as social inequality?
Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of it? Analytical Task Analytical task: What is social inequality?
We often think that the meaning of social inequality is self-evident or easy. Perhaps it is when we focus on extreme versions of the more obvious forms of social inequality, such as the rich compared to the poor.
We want to begin by looking a little deeper into our conceptualization of social inequalities. Choose two kinds of inequality. For each of these two kinds of inequality, consider an example showing a high degree of inequality and another showing equality or a minimal amount of inequality.
For example, if we used political inequality as one kind, we might select one highly authoritarian nation and one highly democratic one, or we might compare two unions or two professional organizations.
Here we are simply trying to conceive a simple 2 x 2 table, showing two kinds of inequality and two levels of inequality for each kind. This is the simplest design for doing social analyses, whether that analysis is empirical or theoretical. It is fine to use standard, commonly discussed kinds of inequality, but being original and creative about kinds of inequality to consider is also good.
Describe briefly how the relevant groups are unequal for each type. Do not worry about why such inequality exists. For now, we are concerned with what we mean by inequality, not what causes it. Try to specify the crucial experiences, opportunities, or other circumstances that distinguish the beneficiaries of the inequality from those who are disadvantaged.
Consider also the relationships between the disadvantaged and advantaged, both direct and indirect. The idea of "indirect relationships" refers to ways that the advantaged or disadvantaged influence the circumstances or actions of those who are differently situated without direct interaction, e.
In short, for each of the two types of inequality, what induces us to call one example high inequality and another low? After working through the questions above, try to complete a definition sentence beginning "In general, social inequality exists when The implicit strategy is compare what social inequality means for the two chosen examples, then to try to identify the common conditions that make them and other forms all merit being called "social inequality" distinguished from the characteristics specific to certain types of inequality or concrete historical and cultural conditions.
To do this involves not only the empirical comparison, but the appropriate conceptual abstraction. For the ambitious to develop a deeper grasp Here are some other issues that you might integrate into your initial assessment of inequalities Vantage points.
Might some people scholars, political actors, others disagree that any of the components you identify should really be considered inequality? The goal here is to think through the reasons that people disagree about what should be called inequality?
Try to figure out how we might measure the amount of inequality. Of the ways that you have listed people being unequal, select which of these differences seem most important.
What might be reasonable ways to measure each identified facet of inequality? For each kind of inequality you have selected an example where inequality is high and another where it is low.Gender inequality in the United States has been diminishing throughout its history and significant advancements towards equality have been made beginning mostly in the early s.
Chapters 6 examines the cultural lag of gender stereotypes and shows how they create gender inequality at sites of innovation in work (high-tech start-ups) and intimate relations (college hook-ups).
Chapter 7 develops the implications of this persistence dynamic for progress toward gender equality.
Also, since women can become pregnant at any time, employers do not want to deal with paid time off for paternal leave. Our group decided on two ideas that we feel would decrease the wage gap in the workplace immensely.
The first idea is “daddy leave” and the . About workplace gender equality. Provides an overview of the workplace gender equality issue, why it’s important and how it benefits organisations. The Human Development Report is a reliable source and an alternative perspective on critical issues for human development worldwide.
Featuring the Human Development Index, every report presents agenda-setting data and analysis and calls international attention to issues and policy options that put people at the center of strategies to meet the challenges of development today - economic, social.
The gender wage gap is a measure of what women are paid relative to men. It is commonly calculated by dividing women’s wages by men’s wages, and this ratio is .