Journal — just that. A collection of dated entries that gather force by accretion of experience, always chronological. Many people, myself included, keep private journals for their own amazement and amusement. But these terms are not discreet necessarily.
By the third quarter of the century, Tonic Sol-fa numbered hundreds of thousands of practitioners at home and in the colonies, and had outstripped competing sight-singing methods. This essay argues that Tonic Sol-fa promoted a way of managing behavior that worked alongside rational recreation and newly introduced institutional surveillance strategies.
But, finally, that particular element in this whole combination which most impressed myself, and through which it is that to this hour Mr. The passage above, placed in a paragraph where the author outlines why he writes about mail-coaches, is highly representative of how music was commonly used in nineteenth-century Britain as a conceptual aid for systems of public organization.
Embedded one within the other, the metaphors of music and the body are shared among various discourses, combining together to describe a harmonized national geography and political system. The role of culture and the body in this national grouping process went beyond being simply metaphoric.
Increasingly at London and provincial concerts in the second half of the century, the cultured ear was imagined as organizing the gathered masses. As audience members were taught how better to appreciate music and as they grew to believe that a lively attention to music-making and compositional structure was a desirable social trait, they increasingly listened silently to a whole musical program rather than talking and moving about, or arriving late and leaving early.
One of the most significant dates within this web of belief and practice was Januarythe month when Congregational Minister John Curwen first published on Tonic Sol-fa.
Of course, there were many other ways of making music at this time, too, from the rowdy drinking song to the concert soloist—precisely those risky or independent behaviors that champions of mass music like Curwen sought to curb McGuire, Music and Victorian Philanthropy 78, The present article focuses on the group music-making of the rational recreation movement especially Tonic Sol-fa to show how similar and interactive this discourse was with that of other contemporaneous group-management methods.
As is commonly known, rational recreation was begun in the tempestuous s by middle- and upper-class philanthropists who sought to help the working poor by providing libraries, lectures, and other educational activities alongside improvements in sanitation, nutrition, and workplace safety.
My aim is to treat this particular subject Tonic Sol-fa in some depth, with awareness that covering decades within a single article means sometimes painting with broad brush strokes over a richly nuanced and complex history of music.
It is also vital to remember that Tonic Sol-fa was just one very successful branch of a much wider singing movement.
The leaders of the two systems disagreed with each other and J. Our discussion begins with an overview of how music formed part of rational recreation, including the perceived scientific grounding of its pedagogic method, its links with other sign systems of the day, and the implications of a movement that was oriented mostly toward workers.
The final section considers how practitioners stressed their sense of the transcendent and magical qualities that music brought to their lives quite apart from any social or religious mission. Managing morals through singing While developments in music pedagogy and concert etiquette might today be mostly regarded as insular to music history, in reality they interacted with the organizational strategies of other Victorian institutions.
Just as surveillance and discipline were used to rehabilitate or reclaim deviants such as criminals or the mentally ill Foucaultmusic for the masses was seen as having potentially corrective work to do.
In looking back over the century, J. He looked round the England ofand found a population as rude in manner, mind, and feeling as perhaps could be found in any part of the civilised world.
He discovered a larger proportion of juvenile criminals than in any country of Europe. He saw that some amount of pleasurable relaxation from labour was necessary to every condition of animal existence. Music would not make a bad man a good man, but there is no man, he said, who would not have been better for the influence of music.
With its perceived ethical appeal, J. Spencer Curwen recalls that music was used for correctional purposes and was seen to assist other early Victorian movements to quell rebellion and uplift working people.I became familiar with Mr.
Coates when I read the 'reparations' article in "The Atlantic" while visiting my sister's house. This book is a more comprehensive look at the horror and degradation inflicted by white America on those of African (or native American, or.
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In January , John Curwen launched Tonic Sol-fa – a system for teaching people to sing, which he believed would improve individual and national morality.
By the third quarter of the century, Tonic Sol-fa numbered hundreds of thousands of practitioners at home and in the colonies, and had outstripped competing sight-singing methods. This essay argues that Tonic Sol-fa promoted a way of.