For hundreds of years, through a network of slaveholders and plantations, enslaved Africans and their American-born progeny harvested great wealth from Southern sugar, cotton and other cash crops. Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, Ala. Population is 90, and
Though its extent might vary with current economic trends, poverty was a constant state. It is hard to define since material expectations vary among generations, social groups, and countries.
If those with sufficient land or a wage large enough to allow for the replacement… Cyclical poverty Cyclical poverty refers to poverty that may be widespread throughout a population, but the occurrence itself is of limited duration. Prices would rise because of scarcities of food, which brought widespread, albeit temporary, misery.
In industrialized societies the chief cyclical cause of poverty is fluctuations in the business cyclewith mass unemployment during periods of depression or serious recession.
Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, the industrialized nations of the world experienced business panics and recessions that temporarily enlarged the numbers of the poor.
And until the Great Depression, poverty resulting from business fluctuations was accepted as an inevitable consequence of a natural process of market regulation.
Relief was granted to the unemployed to tide them over until the business cycle again entered an upswing.
The experiences of the Great Depression inspired a generation of economists such as John Maynard Keyneswho sought solutions to the problems caused by extreme swings in the business cycle.
Since the Great Depression, governments in nearly all advanced industrial societies have adopted economic policies that attempt to limit the ill effects of economic fluctuation.
In this sense, governments play an active role in poverty alleviation by increasing spending as a means of stimulating the economy.
Part of this spending comes in the form of direct assistance to the unemployed, either through unemployment compensationwelfare, and other subsidies or by employment on public-works projects. Although business depressions affect all segments of society, the impact is most Problems in poverty on people of the lowest socioeconomic strata because they have fewer marginal resources than those of a higher strata.
Both generalized and concentrated collective poverty may be transmitted from generation to generation, parents passing their poverty on to their children. Collective poverty is relatively general and lasting in parts of Asia, the Middle Eastmost of Africa, and parts of South America and Central America.
Life for the bulk of the population in these regions is at a minimal level. Nutritional deficiencies cause disease seldom seen by doctors in the highly developed countries.
Low life expectancyhigh levels of infant mortality, and poor health characterize life in these societies. Collective poverty is usually related to economic underdevelopment. The total resources of many developing nations in Africa, Asia, and South and Central America would be insufficient to support the population adequately even if they were equally divided among all of the citizens.
Proposed remedies are twofold: Thus far, both population control and induced economic development in many countries have proved difficult, controversial, and at times inconclusive or disappointing in their results.
An increase of the GNP does not necessarily lead to an improved standard of living for the population at large, for a number of reasons. The most important reason is that, in many developing countries, the population grows even faster than the economy does, with no net reduction in poverty as a result.
This increased population growth stems primarily from lowered infant mortality rates made possible by improved sanitary and disease-control measures. Unless such lowered rates eventually result in women bearing fewer children, the result is a sharp acceleration in population growth.
To reduce birth rates, some developing countries have undertaken nationally administered family-planning programs, with varying results. Many developing nations are also characterized by a long-standing system of unequal distribution of wealth —a system likely to continue despite marked increases in the GNP.
Some authorities have observed the tendency for a large portion of any increase to be siphoned off by persons who are already wealthy, while others claim that increases in GNP will always trickle down to the part of the population living at the subsistence level.
Concentrated collective poverty In many industrialized, relatively affluent countries, particular demographic groups are vulnerable to long-term poverty.
In city ghettosin regions bypassed or abandoned by industry, and in areas where agriculture or industry is inefficient and cannot compete profitably, there are found victims of concentrated collective poverty. These people, like those afflicted with generalized poverty, have higher mortality rates, poor health, low educational levels, and so forth when compared with the more affluent segments of society.
Their chief economic traits are unemployment and underemployment, unskilled occupations, and job instability. Efforts at amelioration focus on ways to bring the deprived groups into the mainstream of economic life by attracting new industry, promoting small business, introducing improved agricultural methods, and raising the level of skills of the employable members of the society.
Case poverty Similar to collective poverty in relative permanence but different from it in terms of distribution, case poverty refers to the inability of an individual or family to secure basic needs even in social surroundings of general prosperity.
This inability is generally related to the lack of some basic attribute that would permit the individual to maintain himself or herself. Such persons may, for example, be blind, physically or emotionally disabledor chronically ill.
Physical and mental handicaps are usually regarded sympathetically, as being beyond the control of the people who suffer from them. Efforts to ameliorate poverty due to physical causes focus on education, sheltered employment, and, if needed, economic maintenance.Jan 24, · When we compare absolute poverty in the United States with absolute poverty in India, or other poor countries, we should be using $4 in .
Background. The official poverty rate on reservations is percent, compared with nationally. Thirty-six percent of families with children are below the poverty line on reservations, compared with percent of families nationally.
These figures are absolute poverty rates as determined by the US monstermanfilm.com , the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $22, Urban Ministries of Durham serves over people every year who struggle with poverty and homelessness.
Spent is an interactive game created by McKinney that challenges you to manage your money, raise a child and make it through the month getting paid minimum wage after a stretch of unemployment.
Because we’re all only a paycheck or three away from needing to ask for help. Poverty in Pakistan spreads across a variety of issues: a very fast-growing population facing lack of education, jobs, technology, capital and investment.
But the country is committed to tackling the problem and the poverty . 4. Generational poverty and situational poverty are different.
Generational poverty is defined as being in poverty for two generations or longer. Approximately billion people in the world live in extreme poverty (less than one dollar per day). Poverty creates ill-health because it forces people to live in environments that make them sick, without decent shelter, clean water or adequate sanitation.