USS Indianapolis went down 71 years ago; hundreds awaited rescue in water for days There's a new clue on shipwreck's general location; Navy consolidates info on website CNN When the blockbuster "Jaws" first terrified moviegoers, not all of the fear came from the special effects or haunting soundtrack.
Struck by rockets, cannons and torpedoes, the vessel suffered extensive damage and over casualties. Israeli forces were then engaged in the fourth day of what would soon be called the Six Day Warwhich would result in a devastating defeat for the combined armies of Research of ussSyria and Jordan.
At first overshadowed by Israel's stunning victory, the attack on the Liberty was destined to become a recurring source of tension between Israel and the United States. Although Israel apologized for the attack and paid compensation to its victims, many American officials rejected Israel's claim that the Liberty incident had been an honest mistake.
Rather, they blamed Israel for what was at best inexcusable negligence, or at worst the premeditated murder of American servicemen.
Such charges persisted in the face of successive inquiries by a broad range of American agencies and Congressional committees, as well as a full Israeli court of inquiry, all of which found no proof whatsoever that Israel knowingly attacked an American ship. On the contrary, the evidence produced by these investigations lent further support to Israel's claim that its decision to attack was, given the circumstances, a reasonable error.
These findings notwithstanding, the case of the assault on the Liberty has never been closed. If anything, the accusations leveled against Israel have grown sharper with time.
In recent years, an impressive number of former American officials have gone on record insisting that the Israeli action was, in fact, deliberate.
Moorer, who was Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff JCS at the time of the Liberty incident, who has labeled the episode a "cover-up," adding that he "cannot accept the claim by the Israelis that this was a case of mistaken identity.
Warnke, then Under Secretary of the Navy, has written that I found it hard to believe that it was, in fact, an honest mistake on the part of the Israeli air force units I suspect that in the heat of battle they figured that the presence of this American ship was inimical to their interests It was not all that difficult to identify, and my judgment was that somewhere along the line some fairly senior Israeli official gave the go- ahead for these attacks Nes, who at the time served as deputy head of the American mission in Cairo, puts it more bluntly: American leaders did not have the courage to punish Israel for the blatant murder of its citizens.
The Inside Story of the U. The cover-up theory is also central to Stephen Green's Taking Sides: America's Secret Relations with a Militant Israelone of the best-selling of all anti-Israel polemics. Nor is the charge of Israeli premeditation confined to books aimed at a popular audience.
Official History by historian John E. Borneas well as Donald Neff's Warriors for Jerusalem: Fishel that "all serious scholarship on the subject accepts Israel's assault as having been perpetrated quite deliberately But while the tenor of these pages may differ - the veterans abjure any anti-Semitismstressing that several of their crewmates were Jewish - their conclusions are indistinguishable: Israel wantonly attacked the Liberty with the intention of killing every man on board, and then thwarted attempts to investigate the crime.
With the recent declassification of these documents in the United States and Israel, however, researchers have gained access to a wealth of primary sources - Israel Defense Forces IDF and U.
With the aid of these materials, the attack on the Liberty can now be reconstructed virtually minute-by-minute and with remarkable detail. The picture that emerges is not one of crime at all, nor even of criminal negligence, but of a string of failed communications, human errors, unfortunate coincidences and equipment failures on both the American and Israeli sides - the kind of tragic, senseless mistake that is all too common in the thick of war.
Without warning, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser sent thousands of troops into the Sinai desert, ousted the UN peacekeeping forces stationed there and then closed the Straits of Tiran - the critical waterway leading to Israel's southern port of Eilat - to Israeli shipping.
In weighing its response, the Israeli government consulted with President Lyndon Johnson, who, though preoccupied with the Vietnam War, was sympathetic to Israel's plight.
The President proposed to challenge the Tiran blockade with an international maritime convoy and on May 24, in preparation for this plan, he ordered the U.
Sixth Fleet to advance into the eastern Mediterranean. Aware of the danger of becoming embroiled in an Arab-Israeli war, however, Washington cautioned the fleet to remain, until further notice, "outside an arc whose radius is miles from Port Said," on the Egyptian coast.
Code-named "Rockstar," the foot "Auxiliary General Technical Research Ship agtr ," as it was euphemistically called, was in fact a signals intelligence vessel sigint equipped with cutting-edge listening and decoding devices.
Among its man crew were several dozen members of the Naval Security Group, who worked below the starboard deck in an area strictly off-limits even to the Liberty's skipper, Cmdr.
The ship sported large antennas and radar discs, but apart from four. The markings "GTR-5" were freshly painted on its bow, and from its mast flew a standard, navy-issue American flag.As the established global expert in market research data, Research Now optimizes your market research and decision making to drive business results.
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Jul 29, · When the blockbuster "Jaws" first terrified moviegoers, not all of the fear came from the special effects or haunting soundtrack. One of the more chilling scenes was fisherman Quint's quiet. NOTES * Mostly protected cruisers plus two armored cruisers and three unprotected cruisers.
** Although not a gunboat, the steel-hulled despatch boat Dolphin was part of the "New Navy".The great increase in numbers after includes new building, conversions, and war prizes.
NAUTICAL RESEARCH JOURNAL 85 Weapons USS Cairo carried a total of fourteen large guns, although, only thirteen were mounted for use. The variety of heavy weapons required the creation of two types of gun carriages. Based on actual measure-ments from the carriages aboard the ship.
I served on the Wright from SeptJan as a Journalist in the Public Information Office. I wrote stories for the ship's magazine, learned photography in the photo lab and hand-set letterpress printing in .