In his philosophy Plato gives a prominent place to the idea of justice. Plato was highly dissatisfied with the prevailing degenerating conditions in Athens. This attack came in the form of the construction of an ideal society in which justice reigned supreme, since Plato believed justice to be the remedy for curing these evils.
What intuition of ours is he trying to jog? In Book II, Glaucon tries to reinforce the challenge to justice that Socrates must meet in the remainder of the book. He argues that justice is the sort of good that is only desired for its consequences, not for its own sake. Justice, he claims, is a necessary evil that human beings endure out of fear and weakness.
Given the chance to escape reprisals, though, any human being would choose to be unjust rather than just. In order to illustrate this point, Glaucon appeals to the Ring of Gyges. According to mythology, this ring has the special power to make its possessor invisible.
If such a man were able to behave unjustly with impunity—as he could if he were invisible—then he would do so. Glaucon himself does not believe that justice is a necessary evil; he thinks that it is the highest form of good, the sort that is desired both for its own sake and for its consequences.
His wish is that Socrates provide a compelling argument to this effect. Explain both why he needs three aspects to the soul, and also why these aspects need to be distinct and independent from one another. Plato defines political justice as being inherently structural.
A society consists of three main classes of people—the producers, the auxiliaries, and the guardians; the just society consists in the right and fixed relationships between these three classes. Each of these groups must do the job appropriate to it, and only that job, and each must be in the right position of power and influence in relation to the others.
In Book IV, Plato demonstrates that these three classes of society have analogs in the soul of every individual. The soul is a tripartite entity. The just individual can be defined in analogy with the just society; the three parts of his soul are fixed in the requisite relationships of power and influence.
That is why Plato needs to show that there are three parts of the soul, but we can still ask why it is important for Plato to demonstrate that the three types of desire present in every individual correspond to three independent sources of desire.
This distinction of parts allows the three types of desire to be exerted simultaneously and to coexist with each other in both conflict and harmony. Political justice is a structural property, consisting in the realization of required relationships between three classes. The relationships constituting political harmony are fixed and static in the same sense as are the mathematical ratios constituting musical harmony.
So in the just individual as well, though desires come and go, the relationship between the different sets of desires remains fixed and permanent.Plato: The Republic. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Republic has been Plato’s most famous and widely read dialogue.
As in most other Platonic dialogues the main character is Socrates. It is generally accepted that the Republic belongs to the dialogues of Plato’s middle period. In Plato’s early dialogues, Socrates refutes the accounts of his interlocutors and the discussion ends with no satisfactory answer .
The Republic, Book I One of Plato's greatest and most influential works. Plato II: Objective Values. Plato argued powerfully in favor of the objectivity of values such as truth, good, and beauty.
Plato was certainly an objectivist in regard to moral values. For the ancients, tyranny is a perversion of moral authority, of the right of legitimate rule, of the right to political representation. These philosophers never even considered tyranny as a necessary evil. St.
Plato argued, in his book, The Republic, that tyranny is not a necessary evil (The Republic of Plato, ). For Aristotle. In Book II of the Republic, Glaucon claims that justice originates from.
a social agreement. According to Aristotle, we should begin ethical inquiry by specifying. the aim of human life.
According to Kant, the basis of morality is the concept of. freedom. Plato argued, in his book, The Republic, that tyranny is not a necessary evil (The Republic of Plato, ). For Aristotle, the functionality of rational governments lies in the perpetuation of the common good in the assemblies of men; tyranny holds no consideration of public opinion or even acknowledges the creative spirit of men (Lord.
Thus before discussing Plato's own concept of justice, it is necessary to analyze those traditional theories of justice were rejected by him. Cephalus who was a representative of traditional morality of the ancient trading class established the traditional theory of justice.